In the US there are pretty much two schools of thought that I'm aware of.
The first is the old-school, Gibbon is awesome, the Middle Ages were all about Feudal everything, the Dark Ages came before the Middle Ages and were a time when religious superstitions resulted in a massive loss of knowledge and technology, and the Roman Empire ended in 476 when the last emperor was deposed.
The second is that Gibbon is a biased punk, Feudalism is a largely useless term that was pretty much invented by Renaissance-era bureaucrats trying to justify their monarchs' attempts to centralize power, and the Roman Empire ended in 1453 with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. It pretty much says that there was the Classical Period (likely divided up a bunch, but I'm not specialized into that field so I wouldn't be able to tell you how), followed by Late Antiquity (a sort of transitional period between the Classical and Medieval eras, lots of changes going on technologically, militarily, politically, socially, etc), Early Medieval (rise of Islam to just before the First Crusade pretty much), High Medieval (Crusades period until the start of the Hundred Years War), Late Medieval (pretty much the start of the Hundred Years War to the fall of Constantinople and the flight of the scholars and books from that city to the west), then the Renaissance, then the Reformation, then the Enlightenment, then the Early Modern, and so on.
I'd be rather surprised if there weren't other naming protocols being taught elsewhere, and I'd imagine that they have their own reasons for doing things the way they do. The Iberian peninsula, for instance, I'd imagine would hinge a lot of things around the Reconquista, while France very likely is all about the various stages in the development of their monarchy. My impression is that the first way mentioned above is based on the predominant British view, at least as of a few decades ago, but it has been under heavy attack by contemporary academics.
0 Lord, save Thy people and bless Thine Inheritance. To our Rulers grant victories over the barbarians, and by Thy Cross protect Thine own Estate.